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Don Crabtree

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Don E. Crabtree (June 8, 1912 – November 16, 1980) was an American flintknapper and pioneering experimental archaeologist.

Known as the "dean of American flintknappers" he was mostly self-educated, however he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree by the University of Idaho. His 1972 publication An Introduction to Flintworking still serves as one of the primary terminology sources for students of lithic technology. Crabtree is known for "Crabtree's Law", which states that "the greater the degree of final finishing applied to a stone artifact, whether by flaking, grinding, and/or polishing, the harder it is to conclude the lithic reduction process which produced the stone artifact". Through practical experimentation and study of archaeological finds (both completed tools and the chips of stone left by their production) Crabtree learned to produce replicas of a variety of different ancient flint and obsidian blades.[1]

Life and death


Don E. Crabtree was born in Heyburn, Idaho on June 8, 1912. He finished high school in Twin Falls in 1930, after which he worked for the Idaho Power Company. After a brief period he traveled to California where he enrolled in Long Beach Junior College in the mid-1930s with the intent to major in geology and paleontology. Crabtree was noted as being a thinker-while-doing, highly active, and not enjoying studying; due to this he dropped out of Long Beach Junior College after only one term to go his own route. In 1939 he discovered he had cancer, and this discovery briefly impeded his self-study in archeology. During the war years he met his wife, Evelyn, and married in 1943 while working for the Bethlehem Steel Company in California. Crabtree would spend the next 30 years educating and assisting some of the biggest names in archeology at the time such as Alfred Kroeber. Crabtree was also asked for his advice at influential sites like the Clovis type site. After a highly successful career he died in Twin Falls, Idaho on November 16, 1980 of complications due to heart disease.

Employment history


After graduation from high school Don Crabtree first worked for the Idaho Power Company. After dropping out of Long Beach Junior College in California he began working in paleontological laboratories. By the late 1930s he was the preparator in the vertebrate paleontology laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. It was during this time he became acquainted with Alfred L. Kroeber and E. W. Gifford of the Lowie Museum at Berkeley. His time at Berkeley also included conducting flint knapping demonstrations for scholars and students and occasionally for museum visitors. After his battle with cancer was over in 1941 he worked for several months at the Lithic Laboratory of the Ohio Historical Society. It was during this period that Crabtree was called upon as an advisor in lithic studies to the University of Pennsylvania, where he was associated with Edgar B. Howard and the Clovis point type site at Black Water Draw. Frank H. H. Roberts of the Smithsonian Institution also called upon him around this time to consult on the analysis of the Lindenmeier Folsom point collection. When the U.S. entered into World War II the Lithic lab was discontinued and Crabtree returned to California to assist in the war effort as a coordination engineer for Bethlehem Steel Company, which built the ships for the Pacific effort until the war ended. After WWII he returned to Twin Springs, Idaho and became a successful real estate salesman in the postwar market. Crabtree was employed from 1952 until 1962 as a county supervisor for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) in Twin Falls. In March 1962 he opened the First Conference of Western Archaeologists on Problems of Point Typology at the Idaho State College Museum with a demonstration of his flintworking skills. In 1964 he was appointed Research Associate in Lithic Technology at the Pocatello Museum - a job he maintained until 1975.

Awards and honors


Don Crabtree was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Idaho for his outstanding contributions to the field of experimental archeology. As a rule he was apprehensive to speak at lectures and publish his work therefore the majority of the archeological community did not realize the depth of his contributions until most of his papers were published in the Idaho State University Museum journal, Tebiwa.[2] After this he became a household name in the U.S. and the "Crabtree School" of Flintknapping was begun during which he taught some 33 pupils from 1969 to 1975 many of which would produce dissertations that would educate students across the country in lithic technology. In 1969 some of Crabtree's work was featured in a special exhibition at New York's American Museum of Natural History. He is also credited with the creation of "Crabtree's Law"[3][4] which is integral in the modern study of lithics. Don Crabtree donated his entire collection of work to the University of Idaho for current and future archeologists to study. The Crabtree Award of the Society for American Archaeology is also named after him.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Selected papers




  1. ^ Plew, Mark G.; Woods, James C.; Pavesic, Max G. (May 4, 1985). Stone Tool Analysis: Essays in Honor of Don E. Crabtree. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 9780826307996. Retrieved May 4, 2018 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "Tebiwa". 1957.
  3. ^ http://delrio.dcccd.edu/pnunley/100/PPT/09lithics.ppt
  4. ^ Don Crabtree's Law: "the greater the degree of final finishing applied to a stone artifact, whether by flaking, grinding and/or polishing, the harder it is to conclude the lithic reduction process which produced the stone artifact."
  5. ^ "Don E Crabtree". core.tdar.org. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  6. ^ "An introduction to the technology of stone tools /".
  7. ^ "Cutting the Edge - Idaho State University Magazine". www2.isu.edu. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  8. ^ Man's Oldest Craft Recreated - Wiley Online Library
  9. ^ Desrosiers, Pierre M. (March 13, 2012). The Emergence of Pressure Blade Making: From Origin to Modern Experimentation. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461420026. Retrieved May 4, 2018 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ CRABTREE, DON E.; GOULD, RICHARD A. (September 1, 1970). "Man's Oldest Craft Re-created". Curator: The Museum Journal. 13 (3): 179–198. doi:10.1111/j.2151-6952.1970.tb00402.x.
  11. ^ "Society for American Archaeology Crabtree Awardees". www.nps.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  12. ^ "SAAweb - SAA Awards". September 2, 2004. Archived from the original on September 2, 2004. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  13. ^ Swieton, Matthew; Hurcombe, Linda (August 15, 2016). "Recycled Flint Cores as Teaching Tools: Flintknapping at Archaeological Open-Air Museums - EXARC". Exarc Journal (EXARC Journal Issue 2016/3). Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  14. ^ "Crabtree Lithic Technology Collection". www.uidaho.edu. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  15. ^ "A Short History of Flintknapping, page 2". lithiccastinglab.com. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  16. ^ Journal, The Research (May 21, 2014). "FLINTKNAPPING MAGAZINE VOL 2 NO 3 MAY 2014". flintknappingmagazine.blogspot.com. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  17. ^ "Calico Early Man Site" (PDF). calicoarchaeology.com.
  18. ^ Journal, The Research (April 26, 2013). "FLINTKNAPPING DIGEST: FRANCOIS BORDES". flintknappingdigest.blogspot.com. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  19. ^ Andrefsky, William; Andrefsky, William Jr. (October 8, 1998). Lithics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521578158. Retrieved May 4, 2018 – via Google Books.
  20. ^ Whittaker, John C. (May 1, 2004). American Flintknappers: Stone Age Art in the Age of Computers. University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292702660. Retrieved May 4, 2018 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ Ferguson, Jeffrey R. (May 15, 2010). Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology: Examining Technology Through Production and Use. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 9781607320234. Retrieved May 4, 2018 – via Google Books.
  22. ^ "Knapping". www.primtech.net. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  23. ^ "A brief introduction to lithic analysis" (PDF). cambridge.org. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  24. ^ "DON CRABTREE AT THE OHS LITHIC LABORATORY". www.ohiohistory.org. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  25. ^ Swanson, Earl Herbert (January 1, 1975). Lithic technology: making and using stone tools. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783111390376. Retrieved May 4, 2018 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ Journal, The Research (January 17, 2013). "FLINTKNAPPING HALL OF FAME: DON CRABTREE, HALL OF FAME FLINTKNAPPER # 3". flintknappinghalloffame.blogspot.com. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  27. ^ "FLINTKNAPPING: CRABTREE, the Dean; Modern flintknapping". flintknapping.blogspot.com. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  28. ^ Knudson, Ruthann, (1982) American Antiquities, Society for American Archaeology, Vol. 13, pp. 336-43