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Coordinates: 19°N 96°W / 19°N 96°W / 19; -96
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Area42,549,000 km2
(16,428,000 sq mi)
Population1.02 billion[1]
Population density22.67/km2 (58.74/sq mi)
DemonymAmerican,[2] Pan-American,[3] New Worlder[4] (see usage)
LanguagesSpanish, English, Portuguese, French, Haitian Creole, Quechua, Guaraní, Aymara, Nahuatl, Dutch and many others
Time zonesUTC−10:00 to UTC
Largest cities
Complete List of largest metropolitan areas and their cities
UN M49 code019 – Americas
001 – World
1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

The Americas, sometimes collectively called America,[5][6][7] are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America.[8][9][10] The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World.[5]

Along with their associated islands, the Americas cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence RiverGreat Lakes basin, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km (8,700 mi) from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rainforests in Central America and South America.

Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 20,000 and 16,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.[11] However, the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1504 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which eventually led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. The Spanish presence involved the enslavement of large numbers of the indigenous population of America.[12]

Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas.[13] Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and importation of African slaves largely replaced the indigenous peoples in much of the Americas.

Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and largely ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of West European languages: primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and, to a lesser extent, Dutch.

The Americas are home to more than a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of whom reside in the United States, Brazil, and Mexico. It is home to eight megacities (metropolitan areas with ten million inhabitants or more): Greater Mexico City (21.2 million), São Paulo (21.2 million), New York City (19.7 million), Los Angeles (18.8 million), Buenos Aires (15.6 million),[14] Rio de Janeiro (13.0 million), Bogotá (10.4 million), and Lima (10.1 million).

Etymology and naming

America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[15]

The name "America" was first recorded in 1507. A two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term.[16] The name was also used (together with the related term Amerigen) in the Cosmographiae Introductio, apparently written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America.[17] It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. "America" derives from Americus, the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name.

The feminine form America was originally used to refer to the newly discovered continent, which is why it was accorded with the feminine names of the other continents: Asia, Africa, and Europa.[18]

Since the 1950s,[19] however, North and South America have generally been considered by English speakers as separate continents, and taken together are called the Americas, or more rarely America.[20][21][5] When conceived as a unitary continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English commonly refers to the United States of America.[5]


Pre-Columbian era

The Plaza Occidental in Copán, Honduras

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the Early Modern period. The term Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacano, Zapotec, Mixtec, Aztec, Maya) and the Andean civilizations (Inca, Moche, Chavín, Muisca, Cañari).

Many pre-Columbian civilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are known only through archeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya, had their own written records. However, most Europeans of the time viewed such texts as pagan, and much was destroyed in Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.[22]


Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory[23]

The first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years.[24][25][26] Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion.[27] Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred after the Late Glacial Maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago.[26][28]

Statue representing the Americas at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago,[29] when sea levels were significantly lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.[27][30] These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets.[31] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America.[32] Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age.[33] Both routes may have been taken, although the genetic evidences suggests a single founding population.[34] The micro-satellite diversity and distributions specific to South American Indigenous people indicates that certain populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region.[35]

A second migration occurred after the initial peopling of the Americas;[36] Na Dene speakers found predominantly in North American groups at varying genetic rates with the highest frequency found among the Athabaskans at 42% derive from this second wave.[37] Linguists and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian language groups and ABO blood group system distributions.[36][38][39][40] Then the people of the Arctic small tool tradition, a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait c. 2,500 BCE moved into North America.[41] The Arctic small tool tradition, a Paleo-Eskimo culture branched off into two cultural variants, including the Pre-Dorset, and the Independence traditions of Greenland.[42] The descendants of the Pre-Dorset cultural group, the Dorset culture was displaced by the final migrants from the Bering sea coast line, the Thule people (the ancestors of modern Inuit), by 1000 Common Era (CE).[42]

Norse colonization

Around the same time as the Inuit migrated into Greenland, Viking settlers began arriving in Greenland in 982 and Vinland shortly thereafter, establishing a settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland.[43] Contact between the Norse colonies and Europe was maintained, as James Watson Curran states:

From 985 to 1410, Greenland was in touch with the world. Then silence. In 1492 the Vatican noted that no news of that country "at the end of the world" had been received for 80 years, and the bishopric of the colony was offered to a certain ecclesiastic if he would go and "restore Christianity" there. He didn't go.[44]

Large-scale European colonization

Christopher Columbus leads expedition to the New World, 1492.

Although there had been previous trans-oceanic contact, large-scale European colonization of the Americas began with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The first Spanish settlement in the Americas was La Isabela in northern Hispaniola. This town was abandoned shortly after in favor of Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founded in 1496, the oldest American city of European foundation. This was the base from which the Spanish monarchy administered its new colonies and their expansion. Santo Domingo was subject to frequent raids by English and French pirates.

On the continent, Panama City on the Pacific coast of Central America, founded on August 15, 1519, played an important role, being the base for the Spanish conquest of South America. Conquistador Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón established San Miguel de Guadalupe, the first European settlement in what is now the United States, on the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.[45] During the first half of the 16th century, Spanish colonists conducted raids throughout the Caribbean Basin, bringing captives from Central America, northern South America, and Florida back to Hispaniola and other Spanish settlements.[46]

France, led by Jacques Cartier and Giovanni da Verrazzano,[47] focused primarily on North America. English explorations of the Americas were led by Giovanni Caboto[48] and Sir Walter Raleigh. The Dutch in New Netherland confined their operations to Manhattan Island, Long Island, the Hudson River Valley, and what later became New Jersey. The spread of new diseases brought by Europeans and African slaves killed many of the inhabitants of North America and South America,[49][50] with a general population crash of Native Americans occurring in the mid-16th century, often well ahead of European contact.[51] One of the most devastating diseases was smallpox.[52]

European immigrants were often part of state-sponsored attempts to found colonies in the Americas. Migration continued as people moved to the Americas fleeing religious persecution or seeking economic opportunities. Millions of individuals were forcibly transported to the Americas as slaves, prisoners or indentured servants.

Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas.

Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution and the Haitian Revolution in the late 1700s. This was followed by numerous Latin American wars of independence in the early 1800s. Between 1811 and 1825, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Gran Colombia, the United Provinces of Central America, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia gained independence from Spain and Portugal in armed revolutions. After the Dominican Republic won independence from Haiti, it was re-annexed by Spain in 1861, but reclaimed its independence in 1865 at the conclusion of the Dominican Restoration War. The last violent episode of decolonization was the Cuban War of Independence which became the Spanish–American War, which resulted in the independence of Cuba in 1898, and the transfer of sovereignty over Puerto Rico from Spain to the United States.

Peaceful decolonization began with the United States's purchase of Louisiana from France in 1803, Florida from Spain in 1819, of Alaska from Russia in 1867, and the Danish West Indies from Denmark in 1916. Canada became independent of the United Kingdom, starting with the Balfour Declaration of 1926, Statute of Westminster 1931, and ending with the patriation of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. The Dominion of Newfoundland similarly achieved independence under the Balfour Declaration and Statute of Westminster, but relinquished self-rule in 1934.[53] It was subsequently confederated with Canada in 1949.

The remaining European colonies in the Caribbean began to achieve peaceful independence well after World War II. Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago became independent in 1962, and Guyana and Barbados both achieved independence in 1966. In the 1970s, the Bahamas, Grenada, Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines all became independent of the United Kingdom, and Suriname became independent of the Netherlands. Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis achieved independence from the United Kingdom in the 1980s.


Satellite photo of the Americas on Earth


The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere.[54] The northernmost point of the Americas is Kaffeklubben Island, which is the most northerly point of land on Earth.[55] The southernmost point is the islands of Southern Thule, although they are sometimes considered part of Antarctica.[56] The mainland of the Americas is the world's longest north-to-south landmass. The distance between its two polar extremities, Murchison Promontory on the Boothia Peninsula in northern Canada and Cape Froward in Chilean Patagonia, is roughly 14,000 km (8,700 mi).[57] The mainland's most westerly point is the end of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska; Attu Island, further off the Alaskan coast to the west, is considered the westernmost point of the Americas. Ponta do Seixas in northeastern Brazil forms the easternmost extremity of the mainland,[57] while Nordostrundingen, in Greenland, is the most easterly point of the continental shelf.


South America broke off from the west of the supercontinent Gondwana around 135 million years ago, forming its own continent.[58] Around 15 million years ago, the collision of the Caribbean Plate and the Pacific Plate resulted in the emergence of a series of volcanoes along the border that created a number of islands. The gaps in the archipelago of Central America filled in with material eroded off North America and South America, plus new land created by continued volcanism. By three million years ago, the continents of North America and South America were linked by the Isthmus of Panama, thereby forming the single landmass of the Americas.[59] The Great American Interchange resulted in many species being spread across the Americas, such as the cougar, porcupine, opossums, armadillos, and hummingbirds.[60]


Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas.

The geography of the western Americas is dominated by the American Cordillera, with the Andes running along the west coast of South America[61] and the Rocky Mountains and other North American Cordillera ranges running along the western side of North America.[62] The 2,300-kilometer-long (1,400 mi) Appalachian Mountains run along the east coast of North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.[63] North of the Appalachians, the Arctic Cordillera runs along the eastern coast of Canada.[64]

The largest mountain ranges are the Andes and Rocky Mountains. The Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range reach similar altitudes as the Rocky Mountains, but are significantly smaller. In North America, the greatest number of fourteeners are in the United States, and more specifically in the U.S. state of Colorado. The highest peaks of the Americas are located in the Andes, with Aconcagua of Argentina being the highest; in North America Denali (Mount McKinley) in the U.S. state of Alaska is the tallest.

Between its coastal mountain ranges, North America has vast flat areas. The Interior Plains spread over much of the continent, with low relief.[65] The Canadian Shield covers almost 5 million km2 of North America and is generally quite flat.[66] Similarly, the north-east of South America is covered by the flat Amazon basin.[67] The Brazilian Highlands on the east coast are fairly smooth but show some variations in landform, while farther south the Gran Chaco and Pampas are broad lowlands.[68]


Climate zones of the Americas in the Köppen climate classification system

The climate of the Americas varies significantly from region to region. Tropical rainforest climate occurs in the latitudes of the Amazon, American cloud forests, southeastern Florida and Darién Gap. In the Rocky Mountains and Andes, dry and continental climates are observed. Often the higher altitudes of these mountains are snow-capped.

Southeastern North America is well known for its occurrence of tornadoes and hurricanes, of which the vast majority of tornadoes occur in the United States' Tornado Alley,[69] as well as in the southerly Dixie Alley in the North American late-winter and early spring seasons. Often parts of the Caribbean are exposed to the violent effects of hurricanes. These weather systems are formed by the collision of dry, cool air from Canada and wet, warm air from the Atlantic.


With coastal mountains and interior plains, the Americas have several large river basins that drain the continents. The largest river basin in North America is that of the Mississippi, covering the second largest watershed on the planet.[70] The Mississippi-Missouri river system drains most of 31 states of the U.S., most of the Great Plains, and large areas between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. This river is the fourth longest in the world and tenth most powerful in the world.

In North America, to the east of the Appalachian Mountains, there are no major rivers but rather a series of rivers and streams that flow east with their terminus in the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Hudson River, Saint John River, and Savannah River. A similar instance arises with central Canadian rivers that drain into Hudson Bay; the largest being the Churchill River. On the west coast of North America, the main rivers are the Colorado River, Columbia River, Yukon River, Fraser River, and Sacramento River.

The Colorado River drains much of the Southern Rockies and parts of the Basin and Range Province. The river flows approximately 1,450 miles (2,330 km) into the Gulf of California,[71] during which over time it has carved out natural phenomena such as the Grand Canyon and created phenomena such as the Salton Sea. The Columbia is a large river, 1,243 miles (2,000 km) long, in central western North America and is the most powerful river on the West Coast of the Americas. In the far northwest of North America, the Yukon drains much of the Alaskan peninsula and flows 1,980 miles (3,190 km)[72] from parts of Yukon and the Northwest Territory to the Pacific. Draining to the Arctic Ocean of Canada, the Mackenzie River drains waters from the Arctic Great Lakes of Arctic Canada, as opposed to the Saint-Lawrence River that drains the Great Lakes of Southern Canada into the Atlantic Ocean. The Mackenzie River is the largest in Canada and drains 1,805,200 square kilometers (697,000 sq mi).[73]

The largest river basin in South America is that of the Amazon, which has the highest volume flow of any river on Earth.[74] The second largest watershed of South America is that of the Paraná River, which covers about 2.5 million km2.[75]


North America and South America began to develop a shared population of flora and fauna around 2.5 million years ago, when continental drift brought the two continents into contact via the Isthmus of Panama. Initially, the exchange of biota was roughly equal, with North American genera migrating into South America in about the same proportions as South American genera migrated into North America. This exchange is known as the Great American Interchange. The exchange became lopsided after roughly a million years, with the total spread of South American genera into North America far more limited in scope than the spread of North American genera into South America.[76]

Countries and territories

There are 35 sovereign states in the Americas, as well as an autonomous country of Denmark, three overseas departments of France, three overseas collectivities of France,[77] and one uninhabited territory of France, eight overseas territories of the United Kingdom, three constituent countries of the Netherlands, three public bodies of the Netherlands, two unincorporated territories of the United States, and one uninhabited territory of the United States.[78]

Country or territory Total area
[note 1]
(per km2)
Common languages
(official in bold)
 Anguilla (United Kingdom) 91 13,452 164.8 English The Valley
 Antigua and Barbuda 442 86,295 199.1 Creole,[80] English St. John's
 Argentina 2,766,890 42,669,500 14.3 Spanish Buenos Aires
 Aruba (Netherlands) 180 101,484 594.4 Papiamentu, Spanish,[81] Dutch Oranjestad
 Bahamas, The 13,943 351,461 24.5 Creole,[82] English Nassau
Bajo Nuevo Bank (United States / Colombia / Jamaica) 100[83] 0[84] 0.0 Uninhabited N/A
 Barbados 430 285,000 595.3 Bajan,[85] English Bridgetown
 Belize 22,966 349,728 13.4 Spanish, Kriol, English[86] Belmopan
 Bermuda (United Kingdom) 54 64,237 1,203.7 English Hamilton
 Bolivia 1,098,580 10,027,254 8.4 Spanish and 36 indigenous languages La Paz and Sucre[87]
 Bonaire (Netherlands) 294 12,093 41.1 Papiamentu, Spanish, Dutch[88] Kralendijk
 Brazil 8,514,877 203,106,000 23.6 Portuguese Brasília
 British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) 151 29,537 152.3 English Road Town
 Canada 9,984,670 37,411,592 3.8 English, French Ottawa
 Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) 264 81,546 212.1 English George Town
 Chile[89] 756,950 17,773,000 22 Spanish Santiago
 Clipperton Island (France) 6[83] 0[84] 0.0 Uninhabited N/A
 Colombia 1,138,910 47,757,000 40 Spanish Bogotá
 Costa Rica 51,100 4,667,096 89.6 Spanish San José
 Cuba 109,886 11,167,325 102.0 Spanish Havana
 Curaçao (Netherlands) 444 150,563 317.1 Papiamentu, Dutch[88] Willemstad
 Dominica 751 71,293 89.2 French Patois, English[90] Roseau
 Dominican Republic 48,671 10,378,267 207.3 Spanish Santo Domingo
 Ecuador 283,560 15,819,400 53.8 Spanish, Quechua[91] Quito
 El Salvador 21,041 6,401,240 293.0 Spanish San Salvador
 Falkland Islands (United Kingdom)[92] 12,173 3,000 0.26 English Stanley
 Federal Dependencies of Venezuela (Venezuela) 342 2,155 2.4 Spanish N/A
French Guiana (France) 91,000 237,549 2.7 French Cayenne
 Greenland (Denmark) 2,166,086 56,483 0.026 Greenlandic, Danish Nuuk
 Grenada 344 103,328 302.3 English St. George's
Guadeloupe (France) 1,628 405,739 246.7 French Basse-Terre
 Guatemala 108,889 15,806,675 128.8 Spanish, Garifuna and 23 Mayan languages Guatemala City
 Guyana 214,999 784,894 3.5 English Georgetown
 Haiti 27,750 10,745,665 361.5 Creole, French Port-au-Prince
 Honduras 112,492 8,555,072 66.4 Spanish Tegucigalpa
 Jamaica 10,991 2,717,991 247.4 Patois, English Kingston
Martinique (France) 1,128 392,291 352.6 Patois,[93] French Fort-de-France
 Mexico 1,964,375 119,713,203 57.1 Spanish, 68 indigenous languages Mexico City
 Montserrat (United Kingdom) 102 4,922 58.8 Creole English, English[94] Plymouth; Brades[95]
Navassa Island (United States / Haiti) 5[83] 0[84] 0.0 Uninhabited Lulu Town
 Nicaragua 130,373 6,071,045 44.1 Spanish Managua
 Panama 75,417 3,405,813 45.8 Spanish Panama City
 Paraguay 406,750 6,783,374 15.6 Guaraní, Spanish Asunción
 Peru 1,285,220 30,814,175 22 Spanish, Quechua, and other indigenous languages Lima
 Puerto Rico (United States) 8,870 3,615,086 448.9 Spanish, English San Juan
 Saba (Netherlands) 13 1,537[96] 118.2 English, Dutch The Bottom
Saint Barthélemy (France) 21[83] 8,938[84] 354.7 French Gustavia
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 55,000 199.2 English Basseterre
 Saint Lucia 539 180,000 319.1 English, French Creole Castries
Saint Martin (France) 54[83] 36,979 552.2 French Marigot
Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) 242 6,081 24.8 French Saint-Pierre
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 389 109,000 280.2 English Kingstown
Serranilla Bank (United States / Colombia / Honduras) 100[83] 0[84] 0.0 Uninhabited N/A
 Sint Eustatius (Netherlands) 21 2,739[96] 130.4 Dutch, English Oranjestad
 Sint Maarten (Netherlands) 34 37,429 1,176.7 English, Spanish, Dutch Philipsburg
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and
South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom)
3,093 20 0.01 English King Edward Point
 Suriname 163,270 534,189 3 Dutch and others[98] Paramaribo
 Trinidad and Tobago 5,130 1,328,019 261.0 English Port of Spain
 Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom) 948 31,458 34.8 Creole English, English[99] Cockburn Town
 United States of America[note 2] 9,629,091 320,206,000 34.2 English, Spanish Washington, D.C.
 U.S. Virgin Islands (United States) 347 106,405 317.0 English Charlotte Amalie
 Uruguay 176,220 3,286,314 19.4 Spanish Montevideo
 Venezuela 916,445 30,206,307 30.2 Spanish and 40 indigenous languages Caracas
Total 42,320,985 973,186,925 21.9



In 2021 the total population of the Americas was about 1.03 billion people, divided as follows:

  • North America: 596.6 million (includes Central America and the Caribbean)
  • South America: 434.3 million

Largest urban centers

There are three urban centers that each hold titles for being the largest population area based on the three main demographic concepts:[100]

A city proper is the locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government.[101][102][103][104][105]
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization and do not include large swaths of rural land, as do metropolitan areas.[citation needed]
Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.[citation needed]

In accordance with these definitions, the three largest population centers in the Americas are: Mexico City, anchor to the largest metropolitan area in the Americas; New York City, anchor to the largest urban area in the Americas; and São Paulo, the largest city proper in the Americas. All three cities maintain Alpha classification and large scale influence.

Country City City Population Metro Area
Mexico Mexico City 8,864,000 22,300,000[106]
Brazil São Paulo 12,038,175 21,742,939[107]
United States New York City 8,405,837[108] 19,949,502[109]
Argentina Buenos Aires 2,891,082[14] 15,594,428[14]
United States Los Angeles 3,928,864[110] 13,131,431[111]


Ethnic map of the Americas (about 1880) by Heinrich Berghaus

The population of the Americas is made up of the descendants of four large ethnic groups and their combinations.

The majority of the population lives in Latin America, named for its predominant cultures, rooted in Latin Europe (including the two dominant languages, Spanish and Portuguese, both Romance languages), more specifically in the Iberian nations of Portugal and Spain (hence the use of the term Ibero-America as a synonym). Latin America is typically contrasted with Anglo-America, where English, a Germanic language, is prevalent, and which comprises Canada (with the exception of Francophone Canada rooted in Latin Europe [France]—see Quebec and Acadia) and the United States. Both countries are located in North America, with cultures deriving predominantly from British and other Germanic roots.

Black population

Slavery in Brazil by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1834–1839).

The transatlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the territories of the Americas under the colonial rule of European powers. In South America, Portugal played a significant role in the trafficking of enslaved Africans, with estimates suggesting that around 40% of all Africans forcibly brought to the Americas were taken to Brazil alone, to work primarily in sugar cane plantations, mining, and agricultural endeavors.[112] In North America, the British Empire was heavily involved in the transatlantic slave trade, with the establishment of colonies such as Virginia, where enslaved Africans were primarily used as labor in tobacco plantations and later in other agricultural and domestic sectors. This system perpetuated for centuries, shaping the socio-economic landscape of all nations of the hemisphere.

After the Haitian Revolution which started in 1791 led by Jean-Jacques Dessalines and was the only successful slave revolt in History, the world's first black republic was established. It started with the massacre of the white population, between 3,000 and 5,000 white men and women of all ages were killed. Dessalines declared:

Oui, nous avons rendu à ces vrais cannibales guerre pour guerre, crimes pour crimes, outrages pour outrages.
Oui, j’ai sauvé mon pays, j’ai vengé l’Amérique.
Yes, we have rendered to these true cannibals war for war, crime for crime, outrage for outrage;
Yes, I have saved my country – I have avenged America.

— Dessalines, first president of the Republic of Haiti, 1804[113][114]


The most prevalent faiths in the Americas are as follows:

  • Christianity (86 percent)[115]
    • Roman Catholicism: Practiced by 69 percent[116] of the Latin American population (61 percent[116] in Brazil whose Roman Catholic population of 134 million[117] is the greatest of any nation's), approximately 24 percent of the United States' population[118] and about 39 percent of Canada's.[119]
    • Protestantism: Practiced mostly in the United States, where half of the population are Protestant, Canada, with slightly more than a quarter of the population, and Greenland; there is a growing contingent of Evangelical and Pentecostal movements in predominantly Catholic Latin America.[120]
    • Eastern Orthodoxy: Found mostly in the United States (1 percent) and Canada; this Christian group is growing faster than many other Christian groups in Canada and now represents roughly 3 percent of the Canadian population.[119]
    • Non-denominational Christians and other Christians (some 1,000 different Christian denominations and sects practiced in the Americas).
  • Irreligion: About 12 percent, including atheists and agnostics, as well as those who profess some form of spirituality but do not identify themselves as members of any organized religion.
  • Islam: Together, Muslims constitute about 1 percent of the North American population and 0.3 percent of all Latin Americans. It is practiced by 3 percent [119] of Canadians and 0.6 percent of the U.S. population.[118] Argentina has the largest Muslim population in Latin America with up to 600,000 persons, or 1.5 percent of the population.[121]
  • Judaism (practiced by 2 percent of North Americans—approximately 2.5 percent of the U.S. population and 1.2 percent of Canadians[122]—and 0.23 percent of Latin Americans—Argentina has the largest Jewish population in Latin America with 200,000 members)[123]

Other faiths include Buddhism; Hinduism; Sikhism; Baháʼí Faith; a wide variety of indigenous religions, many of which can be categorized as animistic; new age religions and many African and African-derived religions. Syncretic faiths can also be found throughout the Americas.

Religious Demographics According to 2010 censuses/estimates in each country
Country Christians Catholics Protestants None/Atheists/Agnostics Others
Argentina[124] 86.2% 76.5% 9.7% 11.3% 2.5%
Bolivia 95.3% 73.7% 21.6% 3.7% 1.0%
Brazil[125] 86.8% 64.6% 22.2% 8.4% 4.8%
Canada[119] 62.6% 38.7% 23.9% 28.5% 8.9%
Chile[126] 76.0% 60.0% 16.0% 21.0% 3.0%
Colombia[127] 93.9% 80.3% 13.6% 5.2% 1.7%
Costa Rica[128] 84.3% 70.5% 13.8% 11.3% 4.3%
Dominican Republic[129] 87.1% 68.3% 18.8% 10.6% 2.2%
Ecuador[130] 95.6% 87.8% 7.7% 3.5% 1.0%
El Salvador[131] 75.5% 45.8% 29.7% 24.3% 1.2%
Guatemala[132] 79.3% 47.6% 31.7% 18.3% 2.4%
Honduras[133] 83.0% 47.9% 35.1% 14.3% 2.7%
Mexico[134] 92.2% 82.7% 8.7% 4.9% 2.9%
Nicaragua[135] 81.1% 54.3% 26.8% 16.8% 2.1%
Panama 90.0% 75.0% 15.0% 7.0% 3.0%
Paraguay 96.8% 90.4% 6.4% 1.4% 1.8%
Peru[136] 96.7% 81.3% 12.5% 1.9% 1.4%
United States[137] 79.9% 25.9% 54.0% 15.2% 5.0%
Uruguay[138] 58.2% 47.1% 11.1% 40.4% 1.5%
Venezuela[139] 89.0% 72.0% 17.0% 8.0% 3.0%


Languages spoken in the Americas

Various languages are spoken in the Americas. Some are of European origin, others are spoken by indigenous peoples or are the mixture of various languages like the different creoles.[128]

The most widely spoken first language in the Americas is Spanish, followed by English and Portuguese.[140] The dominant language of Latin America is Spanish, though the most populous nation in Latin America, Brazil, speaks Portuguese. Small enclaves of French-, Dutch- and English-speaking regions also exist in Latin America, notably in French Guiana, Suriname, and Belize and Guyana respectively. Haitian Creole is dominant in the nation of Haiti, where French is also spoken. Native languages are more prominent in Latin America than in Anglo-America, with Nahuatl, Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní as the most common. Various other native languages are spoken with less frequency across both Anglo-America and Latin America. Creole languages other than Haitian Creole are also spoken in parts of Latin America.

The dominant language of Anglo-America is English. French is also official in Canada, where it is the predominant language in Quebec and an official language in New Brunswick along with English. It is also an important language in Louisiana, and in parts of New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. Spanish has kept an ongoing presence in the Southwestern United States, which formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, especially in California and New Mexico, where a distinct variety of Spanish spoken since the 17th century has survived. It has more recently become widely spoken in other parts of the United States because of heavy immigration from Latin America. High levels of immigration in general have brought great linguistic diversity to Anglo-America, with over 300 languages known to be spoken in the United States alone, but most languages are spoken only in small enclaves and by relatively small immigrant groups.

The nations of Guyana, Suriname, and Belize are generally considered[by whom?] not to fall into either Anglo-America or Latin America because of their language differences from Latin America, geographic differences from Anglo-America, and cultural and historical differences from both regions; English is the primary language of Guyana and Belize, and Dutch is the primary language of Suriname.

Most of the non-native languages have, to different degrees, evolved differently from the mother country, but are usually still mutually intelligible. Some have combined, however, which has even resulted in completely new languages, such as Papiamento, which is a combination of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch (representing the respective colonizers), native Arawak, various African languages, and, more recently English. The lingua franca Portuñol, a mixture of Portuguese and Spanish, is spoken in the border regions of Brazil and neighboring Spanish-speaking countries.[141] More specifically, Riverense Portuñol is spoken by around 100,000 people in the border regions of Brazil and Uruguay. Because of immigration, there are many communities where other languages are spoken from all parts of the world, especially in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay—very important destinations for immigrants.[142][143][144]


Subdivisions of the Americas
Map Legend
  North America (NA)
  South America (SA)
  May be included in
       either NA or SA
  North America (NA)
  May be included in NA
  Central America
  South America
  North America (NA)
  May be included in NA

       Northern America

  Middle America (MA)
  Caribbean (may be
        included in MA)
  South America (SA)
  May be included
        in MA or SA
  Anglo-America (A-A)
  May be included in A-A
  Latin America (LA)
  May be included in LA


Speakers of English generally refer to the landmasses of North America and South America as the Americas, the Western Hemisphere, or the New World.[6] The adjective American may be used to indicate something pertaining to the Americas,[2] but this term is primarily used in English to indicate something pertaining to the United States.[2][145][146] Some non-ambiguous alternatives exist, such as the adjective Pan-American,[147] or New Worlder as a demonym for a resident of the closely related New World.[4] Use of America in the hemispherical sense is sometimes retained, or can occur when translated from other languages.[148] For example, the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) in Paris maintains a single continental association for "America", represented by one of the five Olympic rings.[149]

American essayist H.L. Mencken said, "The Latin-Americans use Norteamericano in formal writing, but, save in Panama, prefer nicknames in colloquial speech."[150] To avoid "American" one can use constructed terms in their languages derived from "United States" or even "North America".[146][151][152] In Canada, its southern neighbor is often referred to as "the United States", "the U.S.A.", or (informally) "the States", while U.S. citizens are generally referred to as "Americans".[146] Most Canadians resent being referred to as "Americans".[146]


In Spanish, América is a single continent composed of the subcontinents of América del Sur and América del Norte, the land bridge of América Central, and the islands of the Antillas. Americano or americana in Spanish refers to a person from América in a similar way that in which europeo or europea refers to a person from Europa. The terms sudamericano/a, centroamericano/a, antillano/a and norteamericano/a can be used to more specifically refer to the location where a person may live.

Citizens of the United States of America are normally referred to by the term estadounidense (rough literal translation: "United Statesian") instead of americano or americana which is discouraged,[153][154] and the country's name itself is officially translated as Estados Unidos de América (United States of America), commonly abbreviated as Estados Unidos (EEUU).[154] Also, the term norteamericano (North American) may refer to a citizen of the United States. This term is primarily used to refer to citizens of the United States, and less commonly to those of other North American countries.[153]


In Portuguese, América[155] is a single continent composed of América do Sul (South America), América Central (Central America) and América do Norte (North America).[156] It can be ambiguous, as América can be used to refer to the United States of America, but is avoided in print and formal environments.[157][158]


In French the word américain may be used for things relating to the Americas; however, similar to English, it is most often used for things relating to the United States, with the term états-unien sometimes used for clarity. Panaméricain may be used as an adjective to refer to the Americas without ambiguity.[159] French speakers may use the noun Amérique to refer to the whole landmass as one continent, or two continents, Amérique du Nord and Amérique du Sud. In French, Amérique is seldom used to refer to the United States, leading to some ambiguity when it is. Similar to English usage, les Amériques or des Amériques is used to refer unambiguously to the Americas.


In Dutch, the word Amerika mostly refers to the United States.[160][161] Although the United States is equally often referred to as de Verenigde Staten ("the United States") or de VS ("the US"), Amerika relatively rarely refers to the Americas, but it is the only commonly used Dutch word for the Americas. This often leads to ambiguity; and to stress that something concerns the Americas as a whole, Dutch uses a combination, namely Noord- en Zuid-Amerika (North and South America).

Latin America and Central America are generally referred to as Latijns Amerika and Midden-Amerika respectively.

The adjective Amerikaans is most often used for things or people relating to the United States. There are no alternative words to distinguish between things relating to the United States or to the Americas. Dutch uses the local alternative for things relating to elsewhere in the Americas, such as Argentijns for Argentine, etc.

Multinational organizations

The following is a list of multinational organizations in the Americas.


Rank Country GDP (nominal, peak year)
millions of USD[162]
Peak year
1  United States 28,781,083 2024
2  Brazil[163] 2,616,156 2011
3  Canada 2,242,182 2024
4  Mexico 2,017,025 2024
5  Argentina 654,892 2023
6  Cuba[164] 545,218 2021
7  Venezuela[165] 482,359 2014
8  Colombia 386,076 2024
9  Chile 335,658 2023
10  Peru 282,458 2024
Rank Country GDP (PPP, peak year)
millions of USD
Peak year
1  United States 28,781,083 2024
2  Brazil 4,273,668 2024
3  Mexico 3,434,224 2024
4  Canada 2,472,227 2024
5  Argentina 1,249,884 2023
6  Colombia 1,086,841 2022
7  Chile 622,779 2024
8  Peru 566,582 2024
9  Venezuela 561,498 2013
10  Dominican Republic 293,365 2024

In exports and imports, in 2020, the United States was the world's second largest exporter (US$1.64 trillion) and the largest importer (US$2.56 trillion). Mexico was the tenth largest exporter and importer. Canada was the twelfth largest exporter and importer. Brazil was the 24th largest exporter and the 28th largest importer. Chile was the 45th largest exporter and the 47th largest importer. Argentina was the 46th largest exporter and the 52nd largest importer. Colombia was the 54th largest exporter and the 51st largest importer; among others.[166][167][168]

The agriculture of the continent is very strong and varied. Countries such as United States, Brazil, Canada, Mexico and Argentina are among the largest agricultural producers on the planet. In 2019, the continent dominated the world production of soy (almost 90% of the world total, with Brazil, the United States, Argentina, Paraguay, Canada and Bolivia among the 10 largest on the planet), sugarcane (about 55% of the world total, with Brazil, Mexico, the United States, and Guatemala among the 10 largest on the planet), coffee (about 55% of the world total, with Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Peru and Guatemala among the 10 largest on the planet) and maize (about 48% of the world total, with the United States, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico among the 10 largest on the planet). The continent also produces almost 40% of world's orange (with Brazil, the US and Mexico among the top 10 producers), about 37% of world's pineapple (with Costa Rica, Brazil, Mexico and Colombia among the 10 largest producers), about 35% of world's lemon (with Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and the United States among the 10 largest producers) and about 30% of world's cotton (with the US, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina among the top 10 producers), among several other products.[169]

In livestock, America also has giant productions. In 2018, the continent produced around 45% of the world's beef (with the US, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Canada among the world's 10 largest producers); about 36% of the world's chicken meat (with the US, Brazil and Mexico among the world's 10 largest producers), and about 28% of the world's cow's milk (with the US and Brazil among the 10 largest producers in the world), among other products.[169]

In industrial terms, the World Bank lists the top producing countries each year, based on the total value of production. According to the 2019 list, the United States has the second most valuable industry in the world (US$2.3 trillion), Mexico has the 12th most valuable industry in the world (US$217.8 billion), Brazil has the 13th most valuable industry in the world (US$173.6 billion), Canada has the 15th most valuable industry in the world (US$151.7 billion), Venezuela the 30th largest (US$58.2 billion, but depends on the oil to obtain this amount), Argentina was the 31st largest (US$57.7 billion), Colombia the 46th largest (US$35.4 billion), Peru the 50th largest ($28.7 billion), and Chile the 51st largest (US$28.3 billion), among others.[170]

In the production of oil, the continent had 8 of the 30 largest world producers in 2020: United States (1st), Canada (4th), Brazil (8th), Mexico (14th), Colombia (20th), Venezuela (26th), Ecuador (27th) and Argentina (28th).[171]

In the production of natural gas, the continent had 8 of the 32 largest world producers in 2015: United States (1st), Canada (5th), Argentina (18th), Trinidad and Tobago (20th), Mexico (21st), Venezuela (28th), Bolivia (31st) and Brazil (32nd).[172][173]

In the production of coal, the continent had 5 of the 30 largest world producers in 2018: United States (3rd), Colombia (12th), Canada (13th), Mexico (24th) and Brazil (27th).[174]

In the production of vehicles, the continent had 5 of the 30 largest world producers in 2019: United States (2nd), Mexico (7th), Brazil (9th), Canada (12th) and Argentina (28th).[175]

In the production of steel, the continent had 5 of the 31 largest world producers in 2019: United States (4th), Brazil (9th), Mexico (15th), Canada (18th) and Argentina (31st).[176][177]

In mining, the continent has large productions of gold (mainly in the United States, Canada, Peru, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina);[178] silver (mainly in Mexico, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina and the US);[179] copper (mainly in Chile, Peru, US, Mexico and Brazil);[180] platinum (Canada and US);[181] iron ore (Brazil, Canada, US, Peru and Chile);[182] zinc (Peru, US, Mexico, Bolivia, Canada and Brazil);[183] molybdenum (Chile, Peru, Mexico, Canada, US);[184] lithium (Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Canada);[185] lead (Peru, US, Mexico and Bolivia);[186] bauxite (Brazil, Jamaica, Canada, and US);[187] tin (Peru, Bolivia and Brazil);[188] manganese (Brazil and Mexico);[189] antimony (Bolivia, Mexico, Guatemala, Canada and Ecuador);[190] nickel (Canada, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Cuba and US);[191] niobium (Brazil and Canada);[192] rhenium (Chile and US);[193] and iodine (Chile),[194] among others.

Dominica, Panama and the Dominican Republic have the fastest-growing economy in the Americas according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF),[195] 16, five to seven countries in the southern part of the Americas had weakening economies in decline, compared to only three countries in the northern part of the Americas.[196][197] Haiti has the lowest GDP per capita in the Americas, although its economy was growing slightly as of 2016.[196][197]

See also


  1. ^ Includes the states of Hawaii and Alaska, which are both separated from the US mainland, with Hawaii distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania, while Alaska is located between Canada and Asia (Russia).


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Further reading

External links

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