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Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1965–present
Used bySee Users
Production history
DesignerKBP Instrument Design Bureau
DesignedEarly 1960s
ManufacturerKBP Instrument Design Bureau
MassGSh-23: 49.2 kg (108 lb)
GSh-23L: 50 kg (110 lb)
LengthGSh-23: 1,387 mm (4 ft 7 in)
GSh-23L: 1,537 mm (5 ft 1 in)
Barrel length1,000 mm (3 ft 3 in)

Cartridge23×115 mm
ActionGast principle
Rate of fire3,400–3,600 rounds/min (alleged) [citation needed]
Muzzle velocity715 m/s (2,350 ft/s)

The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23 (Russian: ГШ-23)[1] is a twin-barreled 23 mm autocannon developed in the Soviet Union, primarily for military aircraft use. It entered service in 1965, replacing the earlier Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23 and Rikhter R-23.

The GSh-23 works on the Gast Gun principle developed by German engineer Karl Gast of the Vorwerk company in 1916. It is a twin-barreled weapon in which the firing action of one barrel operates the mechanism of the other. It provides a much faster rate of fire for lower mechanical wear than a single-barrel weapon.

Although it cannot match the sustained rate of fire of an electric Rotary cannon like the M61 Vulcan, it requires no external power source to operate, but is instead powered by the recoiling of the floating barrels, somewhat like the action of the German MG-42. The Gast principle has been little used in the West, but was used on a variety of weapons in the former Soviet Union.

The cannon comes in a basic GSh-23 variant, and the more popular GSh-23L (ГШ-23Л), differing mostly in adding a muzzle brake, lowering recoil force. This cannon was standard fit on late-model MiG-21 fighters (M, SM, MF, SMT, PFM, bis), all variants of the MiG-23, the SOKO J-22 Orao, the JF-17 Thunder, the HAL Tejas, the Aero L-39ZA Albatros and IAR 93, and the tail turrets of the Tupolev Tu-22M bomber and some late-model Tu-95MS and Tu-142M3. In the latter application, it had the unusual ability to fire infrared flares and chaff rounds, allowing it to function as both a weapon and a dispenser of anti-missile countermeasures. It is also mounted on late small series Mi-24VP helicopters (in the NPPU-23 movable mounting) and Polish W-3WA Sokół helicopter in fixed mounting. The cannon was also used on cargo aircraft; specifically, Russian/Soviet Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft were designed to accommodate twin GSh-23's in a tail turret.[2] An Il-76M with just such a configuration could be seen at the 2002 Ivanovo airshow.[3]

Some second generation MiG-21 models could carry the GSh-23L in an under-fuselage gondola designated the GP-9, carrying the cannon and 200 rounds of ammunition; this was replaced by a more streamlined semi-conformal installation in later variants. There are also several gun pods available for mounting on external hardpoints: UPK-23 for air-to-air use, with one or two fixed GSh-23 guns and 200–400 rounds of ammunition, and SPPU-22 pods with traversable barrels for strafing, from 0° to −30° and carried 280 rounds of ammunition in each (they were most often carried by the Su-17/-20/-22 as well as the Su-25/-39 in pairs).


  • Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23L, is a modernized air-cooled version with a muzzle brake added to reduce recoil. Used on NPPU-23 helicopter turret.[4][5]
  • Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23V, is a water-cooled version of GSh-23L. Used on NPPU-23 helicopter turret.[6]


Map with Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23 users in blue

See also



  1. ^ "Born in the USSR: Russia's most vicious Soviet mini-artillery guns - Russia Beyond". 13 March 2018.
  2. ^ "OKB-144 OKB-004 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter. Model kits, Military and Technical Books and Magazines on www.Aviapress.com". Archived from the original on 30 July 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  3. ^ "WWW.FOXBAT.RU ==". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  4. ^ "23mm Gryazev-Shipunov GSH-23".
  5. ^ Alexander Mladenov (2012). Mil Mi-24 Hind Gunship. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84603-954-6.
  6. ^ Yefim Gordon (2013). Russian Gunship Helicopters. Pen and Sword. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-4738-3139-1.
  7. ^ "OFT develops Gen-X weapons". oneindia.com. 19 March 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  8. ^ "cal. 23mm AIRCRAFT GUN GSh 23 TYPE". umcugir.ro. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  9. ^ "Su-25 M1 Frogfoot". redstar.gr. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.