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An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics, and chemotherapy directed against cancer. They may be used for severe cases of gastroenteritis, especially if the patient is dehydrated.[citation needed]

Some antiemetics previously thought to cause birth defects appear safe for use by pregnant women in the treatment of morning sickness and the more serious hyperemesis gravidarum.[1][2]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Quinlan, Jeffrey D.; Hill, D. Ashley (1 June 2003). "Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - American Family Physician". American Family Physician. 68 (1): 121–128. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  2. ^ Schaefer, Christof; Scialli, Anthony; Rost van Tonningen, Margreet (2001). "Antiemetics and hyperemesis gravidarum". Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation: Handbook of Prescription Drugs and Comparative Risk Assessment. Gulf Professional Publishing. ISBN 978-0-444-50763-1.
  3. ^ Pae C-U (2006). "Low-dose mirtazapine may be successful treatment option for severe nausea and vomiting". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 30 (6): 1143–5. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.03.015. PMID 16632163. S2CID 31784303.
  4. ^ a b Kast RE, Foley KF (July 2007). "Cancer chemotherapy and cachexia: mirtazapine and olanzapine are 5-HT3 antagonists with good antinausea effects". European Journal of Cancer Care. 16 (4): 351–4. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2354.2006.00760.x. PMID 17587360.
  5. ^ National Institute of Mental Health. PDSD Ki Database (Internet) [cited 2013 Sep 27]. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina. 1998-2013. Available from: "PDSP Database - UNC". Archived from the original on 2013-11-08. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
  6. ^ Vincent, Beverly J.; McQuiston, Debra J.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Nagy, Catherine M.; Brames, Mary J. (1983-05-01). "Review of Cannabinoids and their Antiemetic Effectiveness". Drugs. 25 (1): 52–62. doi:10.2165/00003495-198300251-00006. ISSN 1179-1950. PMID 6301800. S2CID 22426920.
  7. ^ "Drug Scheduling". www.dea.gov. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
  8. ^ "2017 - Final Rule: Placement of FDA-Approved Products of Oral Solutions Containing Dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] in Schedule II". www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
  9. ^ "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Rescheduling of the Food and Drug Administration Approved Product Containing Synthetic Dronabinol [(-)-greek-DSUP9/SUP -(trans)-Tetrahydrocannabinol] in Sesame Oil and Encapsulated in Soft Gelatin Capsules From Schedule II to Schedule III". Federal Register. 1999-08-04. Retrieved 2024-06-28.
  10. ^ Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Chegeni, Mansoureh; Hirmanpour, Anahita; Nazem, Masoud; Sarizdi, Seyyad Hamid (January 2016). "Prophylactic antiemetic effects of Midazolam, Ondansetron, and their combination after middle ear surgery". Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 5 (1): 16–21. doi:10.4103/2279-042X.176556. ISSN 2319-9644. PMC 4776542. PMID 26985431.
  11. ^ Grunberg, S. M. (1 February 2007). "Antiemetic activity of corticosteroids in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: dosing, efficacy, and tolerability analysis". Annals of Oncology. 18 (2): 233–240. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl347. ISSN 0923-7534. PMID 17108149.
  12. ^ Abdel-Aziz H, Windeck T, Ploch M, Verspohl EJ (2006-01-13), "Mode of action of gingerols and shogaols on 5-HT3 receptors: binding studies, cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum", Eur J Pharmacol, 530 (1–2): 136–43, doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.049, PMID 16364290
  13. ^ Huang, Q.; Iwamoto, Y.; Aoki, S.; Tanaka, N.; Tajima, K.; Yamahara, J.; Takaishi, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Tomimatsu, T.; Tamai, Y. (1991). "Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 39 (2): 397–399. doi:10.1248/cpb.39.397. PMID 2054863.
  14. ^ Marx, WM; Teleni L; McCarthy AL; Vitetta L; McKavanagh D; Thomson D; Isenring E. (2013). "Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review" (PDF). Nutr Rev. 71 (4): 245–54. doi:10.1111/nure.12016. PMID 23550785. S2CID 19187673. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-05-07. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
  15. ^ Ernst, E.; Pittler, M. H. (March 2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 84 (3): 367–371. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. ISSN 0007-0912. PMID 10793599.
  16. ^ O'Connor, Anahad (August 21, 2007). "The Claim: Eating Ginger Can Cure Motion Sickness". The New York Times.
  17. ^ Kampo, Sylvanus; Afful, Alfred Parker; Mohammed, Shiraj; Ntim, Michael; Buunaaim, Alexis D. B.; Anabah, Thomas Winsum (2019-09-14). "Sub-hypnotic dose of propofol as antiemetic prophylaxis attenuates intrathecal morphine-induced postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pruritus in parturient undergoing cesarean section — a randomized control trial". BMC Anesthesiology. 19 (1): 177. doi:10.1186/s12871-019-0847-y. ISSN 1471-2253. PMC 6745062. PMID 31521119.
  18. ^ Gov, Us. "MUSCIMOL - CAMEO Chemicals". NOAA. Retrieved 2021-03-09.